12 Cranial Nerves Pdf
Sensation to the carotid body and sinus would also be lost, thereby altering blood pressure and oxygen tension in the bloodstream. Analysis of function is performed during testing of the oculomotor nerve.
Cranial nerves are those nerves that either arise from brain or brain stem in pairs. Arises from two roots, legal glossary pdf cranial and spinal.
Also ptosis eyelid drooping. Observe saliva flow from the parotid duct. Vision, also called eyesight.
Learn the names of these cranial nerves easily with these mnemonics. These nerves are termed according to their structure or functions. Supplies the muscles of the tongue - responsible for the tongue movements involved in speech and swallowing. Although care has been taken when compiling this page, the information contained might not be completely up to date. It then descends down into the neck and abdomen by passing via the jugular foreman.
Motor fibres control secretion of tears via the lacrimal glands and saliva via the sublingual salivary glandsas well as facial expressions via some of the muscles of facial expression. Ask patient to clench jaws, open, then move jaw side to side with resistance. Loss of hearing by air conduction indicates a lesion or damage to the middle ear. It also has parasympathetic fibers that supplies various glands etc. Test for corneal reflex with whisp of cotton.
Muscles of facial expression, stapedius, stylohyoid, post, belly of digastric. This is concerned with hearing and balance of the body. It has also sensory fibers for facial and taste sensations. Damage to this nerve causes double vision and paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle, thus the eye remains rotated medially on the affected side.
12 cranial nerves and their Functions
Hamza is the writer and owner of this blog. Temporalis, masseter, pterygoids, anterior belly of digastric, mylohyoid, tensors palatini and tympani. Have patient shrug shoulders and rotate head against resistance. Each optic nerve contains approx.
Third cranial nerve is called oculomotor nerve. It then decends the neck and enter pharynx. This nerve arise from basal plate infront of superior colliculus in mid brain. Damage to this modality will reduce or inhibit the ability to secrete tears from the affected side. Next Embryology of Head and Neck pdf free download.
However, the gag reflex is generally considered the definitive test for glossopharyngeal nerve damage. Here all the cell bodies of sensory fibers lies. Mucus production in the nasal cavity and salivary gland secretions from the submandibular and sublingual glands is more difficult to evaluate. Sensory functions include taste, sensations of oropharynx and tonsil etc. Watch for crossing of eyes during convergence.
Test for gag reflex and swallowing and position of the uvula during this procedure. Observe symmetry of face when asked to close eyes, frown, smile, whistle, raise eyebrows. This is a mixed type of nerve that has both the sensory and motor fibers and parasympathetic as well. It then transverses the cavernous sinus and enter the orbit. Damage such as an ethmoid fracture may result in anosmia loss of sense of smell.
Snell s Clinical Neuroanatomy 8th Edition PDF
It has both afferent and efferent fibers but most of them are afferent fibers that carry sensory information from different organs. Damage to this nerve causes double vision and inability to rotate the eye inferolaterally. Its receptors lie in the mucosa of nasal cavity in upper part and sensory afferent fibers travel to olfactory bulb after passing various opening in cribriform plate. Damage to this modality would reduce or inhibit saliva secretion from the parotid gland. Moves the eyeball and eyelid, adjusts the lens of the eye for near vision and also constricts the pupil of the eye via motor fibres distributed to muscles located in and around the eye.
12 Cranial Nerves pdf free download - Free Medical books download PDF
Damage to this modality, such as in stroke, causes a paralysis of the muscles of facial expression, which causes the face to sag and an inability to make facial expressions on the affected side. Olfactory epithelial cells.
Most of them are sensory fibers but some are motor and other are mixed as well. Via superior orbit fissure, trochlear nerve enter the orbit and innervates superior oblique muscle. Observe and compare contractions and dilations in affected and unaffected eyes. Damage to this modality may cause paralysis of all extraocular muscles except the superior oblique and lateral rectus.
Sensory fibres are concerned with taste via the taste buds at the front of the tongue. Test walking a straight line, dizziness. All fibers in all branches.
This nerve arise in the junction between pons and medulla lateral to facial nerve. Damage to this nerve may cause loss of hearing, sense of motion and loss of equilibrium etc. Visual fields are determined by examining when patient observes an object moving from lateral to medial. Four Angels to my bed, Four Angels round my head, One to watch and one to pray, And two to bear my soul away.
The sensory fibres convey sensations of touch, pain and temperature from the front of the head including the mouth and also from the meninges. Movement, head and shoulder. Your email address will not be published. Ophthalmoscope used for observing retina, optic disc, and blood vessels. Sensory Fibres Monitors blood pressure Monitors levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood Coordination of some muscle activity e.
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